Top 10 Best Dual Action Sander Reviews in 2021

Check out the results fast – here are our review winners

Our Pick

Aircat 6310-6" Composite Dual Action Sander

Aircat 6310-6" Composite Dual Action Sander

Editor's Choice

Ingersoll Rand 311A 6-Inch Heavy-Duty Air Dual-Action Quiet Sander

Ingersoll Rand 311A 6-Inch Heavy-Duty Air Dual Action Quiet Sander

Best For Professionals

Hutchins 4500 6-Inch DA Super Sander

Hutchins 4500 6-Inch Dual Action Super Sander

It certainly is a great challenge to find the best dual action sander that is worth your hard earned  money! 

Whether you are a professional or a hobbyist, you will always appreciate a good sander. Choosing the best dual action sander will help you enjoy long-term services and values. We analyzed 10 Dual Action sanders and compared them by value, comfort, ease of use, durability, and versatility. Our in-depth reviews and buying guide will help you pick the one best suited to your needs.

We have kept in mind all factors that may affect the operation. We have also given thought in distinguishing our picks according to specific levels of usability and preferences. As plain as pikestaff, budget comes into the scenario in decision making of any purchase. Worry no more as we have analyzed these products keeping affordability in mind.

Read on to find your next favorite Dual Action sander!

Top 10 Best Dual Action Sander Reviews

1. Aircat 6310-6" Composite Dual Action Sander

  • Low weight only 2.25 lbs
  • Low air consumption only 2.5 CFM
  • Lubrication free motor
  • Very quiet only 82 dba
  • 2 year warranty

The Aircat 6310 is comfortable to use, thanks to its low weight, efficient motor, ergonomic handle, and fine-tuned muffler. The rubberized grip allows for additional comfort. All these features make maneuvering the device easy. These being so, maneuvering the device is effortless.

Out of all the sanders we have reviewed, the Aircat one uses the least air. It only requires 2.5 CFM of air. For comparison, the models from Valianto and Sunex each consume 4 CFM.

It’s easy on the arms due to its lightweight, low vibration, and ergonomic design. Subsequently, it reduces strain and prevents aches in long uses. At 2.3 pounds, it is lighter than some of our best low-weight options like the ones from Valianto (2.86 pounds) and TCP (2.7 pounds).

The low vibration and quietness make it ideal for those who prefer calm, quiet operation. It is much quieter than the Ingersoll Rand 311A and the Hutchins 4500.

Aircat has a reputation for supplying sturdy, durable equipment, and this air sander is no exception. It is built to last for years, with minimal issues and consistent performance over the time.And unfortunately, it does not allow the use of hook-and-loop pads, so you cannot perform wet sanding with this.

Verdict: This impressive Dual Action sander is our Editor’s Choice pick. You cannot go wrong with this if you are only looking for dry sanding. It is slightly more expensive than the $60 models but delivers excellent value and quality. It performs as well as high-end devices at a fraction of the cost.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 2.38 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 10.5 x 6 x 4.5 in
  • Material: Composite
  • Max Free Speed: 10,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 2.5 CFM
  • Warranty: 2 years (parts and labor)

Special Features

Fine-tuned exhaust muffler 

The fine-tuned exhaust muffler technology retains power and reduces noise. While noise is not eliminated, it quiets to a tolerable 82 dBa or even less by adjusting the pressure.

Rubberized palm grip 

While most sanders require holding the top of the unit with palms, the Aircat model comes with a rubberized handle which allows comfortable operation.

Variable Speeds

The Aircat 6310 can be set to variable speeds. It operates at a free speed of 10,000 RPM, and this speed can be adjusted to suit the task at hand.



2. Ingersoll Rand 311A 6-Inch Heavy-Duty Air Dual Action Quiet Sander

  • Low vibration
  • Balanced ball bearing construction
  • Adjustable built-in regulator for positive speed control

The Ingersoll Rand 311A sander is excellent value for money. It performs just as well as pricier models from other brands, and there’s not much of a difference in functionality. This has a lower price than the Hutchins 4500, but provides better value.

This sander boasts great quality. It has no issues with parts breaking off or disassembling even after long term use.

The tool is very smooth. Some air tools can be bumpy and give uneven finishes, but that is not the case with this sander. It operates smoothly and creates an even surface.

The size is great for any project. This makes it suitable for hobbyists looking to work on projects at home and need a compact, comfortable tool. Unlike the Hutchins 4500, it can be used for heavy-duty sanding.

At 4.2 pounds, this sander is on the heavier side, and usage results in sore arms after work. Although this quality makes it heavy-duty and sturdy, it can cause issues for those with low pain tolerance or arm, shoulder, or back pain issues. Use gloves to protect your hands from the vibration, and hold it flat and steady to get accurate results.

This tool uses a lot of air. At 17 CFM, it uses the most air out of any of the sanders from our reviews. Make sure you have a large compressor to keep up. We recommend using a 60-gallon air compressor instead of a 30 gallon one. The Aircat 6310 uses much less air, so if that is what you prefer, go for that one.

Verdict: Given the excellent quality and heavy-duty performance of this sander, it is our pick for the best one for professionals. If you don’t mind the heaviness, this model is a great option. It performs well in all aspects and serves a variety of uses. We highly recommend this if you are looking for an essential, sturdy tool that will give consistent performance in your shop or professional work.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 4.2 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 4.3 x 10.5 x 6.4 in
  • Max Free Speed: 12,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 17 CFM
  • Warranty: 1 year

Special Features

Built-in regulator for speed control

This model allows  speed adjustment for slow sanding, so you will not need to adjust the main line pressure for this purpose. This will save you from unnecessary hassle and waste of time.

Built-in silencer

This particular model is very quiet. The built-in silencer muffles noise so you can work comfortably. This feature reduces discomfort and distraction created due to loud noises.

Lever throttle

The lever throttle reduces arm and wrist fatigue by taking pressure off the palm. This, coupled with the low vibration feature, reduces the straining effects of the heavy weight of the product on the wrists and arms.



3. Hutchins 4500 6-Inch Dual Action Super Sander

  • Over-size drive head eliminates pad-wobble for full contact sanding.
  • Positive-action drive supported by 4-special bearings generates more power on less air.
  • Item Package Dimension: 12.7" L x 5.7" W x 5.6" H
  • Item Package Weight: 4.0 lb

The Hutchins 4500 Dual Action sander is very durable. It is well-constructed and does not require much maintenance or frequent repairs. It does not cause issues during operation even after several uses.

This smaller orbital pattern of this sander allows more control for fine work. With the large drive head it  gives a super-even finish, making it suitable for further smoothing after using a more powerful sander to remove paint and filler. The result is a flawless finish.

The design is compact and elegant, making it a delight to use. If aesthetics are important to you, this is your best choice.

This is a foolproof model thanks to its flex cover and metal guard. Thereby provides comfort and reduces the chances of accidents.

The device has a vibration-free motor which reduces vibration. This model has a lower vibration than  the Valianto Professional 6” Dual Action sander.

Due to its sturdy construction, it is heavy. This is great for flat surfaces but does not work well on curves, for example, on boats. The heaviness may also cause wrist and arm strain.

This sander is best for finishing, not for heavy-duty, aggressive sanding. You need a more powerful tool to perform aggressive sanding tasks, like smoothing out body filler, then use this air sander to give it a smooth, even finish.

Verdict: The Hutchins 4500 can be a secondary DA sander for professionals. We verify this is a stellar sander to have in your kit for finishing. As a professional, you likely already have heavy-duty sanders in your arsenal. Get this tool for an extra-smooth, refined, professional finish atop your rough sanding!

Technical Features

  • Weight: 3.6 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 24 x 12 x 12 in
  • Max Free Speed: 10,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 9.8 CFM
  • Warranty: 1 year (repair only)

Key Features

Custom handle

The custom handle allows you to operate the device with remarkable control at any angle. This makes the work easier to do as you don’t need to move around too much and work on hard-to-reach areas.

Low-profile, vibration-free motor

This device is quiet and generates less vibration, thanks to the vibration-free motor. This allows you to focus on the task on hand without any distractions. Less vibration also results in better control over the device.

Special Features

Metal Guard Around Counterweight

There is a metal guard around the counterweight. This is implemented to prevent finger injury from the counterweight.



4. Valianto 6" Professional Air Random Orbital Palm Sander

  • 【Packaging Includes】-----1Pcs 6" Hook & Loop Sanding Pads (5/16 x 24 thread) / 1Pcs 6" Air Sander/ 1Pcs wrench/ 1Pcs Quick Connector/ Instruction manual
  • 【Controllable Speed and High Efficiency】-----Built-in regulator for speed control, easy to handle and Can be operated with one hand, highly reduce operators' fatigue while delivering the best performance, igh Speed and Powerful, universal sanding machine, Free speed Can reach 12,000 revolutions per minute, 90 PSI Air Pressure, high strength shorten your working time improve efficiency
  • 【Double Rotation Polishing Technology】-----Double rotation grinding method to make the polishing effect more uniform and smooth
  • 【Low Vibration】-----Valianto’s Dual Action Pneumatic Sande, Light weight, low height, Precision balanced motor operates smoothly for greater comfort and control, reduce vibration, provide excellent performance
  • 【VARIED APPLICATIONS】-----This dual action sander is ideal for auto body, furniture,wood, metal products, widely used for sanding, grinding, polishing and waxing and cutting, etc.

The Valianto palm sander operates smoothly and is lightweight so that it can be used with one hand. This helps get good results in hard-to-reach areas. It can be used for wet sanding and dry sanding, so you will be able to use it on boats as well.

Thanks to its aluminum body, the tool is durable. It is well made and can accommodate long-term use up to 150 hours and more.

The sander uses 90 PSI, which improves efficiency. This is the optimal pressure for operating a random orbital sander.

This air sander is much quieter than the Professional Air and the Presa Turbine 6” sanders. If noise is a factor in decision making of your purchase, consider getting this model. It gives optimum performance without screeching.

The Valianto sander has a free speed of 12000 RPM. This is higher than others like the Aircat and Chicago Pneumatic ones, which have a free speed of 10000 RPM.

The device has a high vibration. Keep it steady while working to avoid mishaps or uneven texture. If you have issues with handling high-vibration equipment, this may not be for you.

The instructions provided are in Chinese. It will be difficult setting up your machine if you don’t know the language and have never used a sander. If you have worked with sanders before, this shouldn’t be a problem. It assembles and functions like any other palm sander.

Verdict: The Valianto palm sander is a decent one to get if you want something for multiple uses. It is not the best we have seen, and there are better options for this price range. If you don’t mind the high vibration and are familiar with setup and use, you can go for this model.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 2.86 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 4.8 x 4.8 x 3.78 in
  • Material: Aluminium
  • Max Free Speed: 12,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 4 CFM

Key Features

Accessories provided

The unit comes with hook and loop sanding pads, a wrench, a quick connector, and an instruction manual. If you purchase this kit, you will not need to buy other supplements separately; all basics are covered

90 PSI air pressure
Works on many materials

The Valianto professional palm sander works well on auto body, wood, furniture, and metal products. You can use one tool for many projects, saving yourself money and the need to search for an additional product.

Special Features

Double Rotation Polishing Technology

This device uses a double rotation grinding method to ensure smooth and uniform polishing. This results in an extremely fine finish no matter how rough the surface.



5. Chicago Pneumatic CP870 Non-Vacuum Dual Action Hand Grip Air Sander

The Chicago Pneumatic CP870 air sander is a small but powerful tool. It is comparable to sanders in a higher price range, like the Hutchins 4500. It delivers heavy-duty, aggressive sanding.Full metal body makes the device durable. It won’t break easily and will last a long time.

The spinning and oscillating actions are smooth and steady. The sander gives fine results even in aggressive tasks.It has a free speed of 10,000 RPM, which can be adjusted to suit your task.

This sander is efficient when it comes to air consumption. It only uses 4 CFM of air. We found it does not demand too much air and needs only one cycle of compression for sanding filler or primer. 

Lock-off throttle prevents accidentally starting the sander. You can control whether the device is running or not despite being connected to the air pipe. This ensures safety.

Power regulator: The power regulator provides precise control.

The sanding pad provided isn’t great, so you will need to purchase your own for the best results. Thankfully, they are cheap and readily available, so this is not much of a problem.

Verdict: Given its features and traits, we believe this is the best Dual Action sander for auto body work. It works with a large compressor at 90 PSI to deliver excellent sanding on large surfaces. The controls and safety features further strengthen our belief it is fit for heavy-duty tasks while maintaining the comfort and safety of the operator.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 4.81 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 10.12 x 6.5 x 4.49 in
  • Material: Metal
  • Max Free Speed: 10000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 5 CFM
  • Warranty: 1 year

Key Features

Insulated grip



Professional Air Random Orbital Palm Sander

6. Professional Air Random Orbital Palm Sander

  • New version, high strength, wear resistant, long service life
  • Air Inlet:1/4", hook and loop sanding pad:5", Free speed: 12,000 revolutions per minute
  • Rear exhaust. Built-in regulator for speed control
  • Lighter air-motor assembly, ideal for vertical and overhead sanding applications
  • Average air consumption: 10.5 CFM;Air Pressure: 90 PSI

The Professional Air palm sander is extremely affordable. The other options we have listed, like the Aircat 6310, Chicago Pneumatic CP870, and Sunex SX203N, are all priced around $60. The one from Professional Air is half the price, yet provides great value.

This palm sander fits the palm very well, making it comfortable using and manipulating any surface. With dimensions of 8 x 6.12 x 5 inches, it is one of the smallest and most compact sanders on our list.

The unit is lightweight yet sturdy. The plastic body keeps the weight low while heat-treated steel components ensure long service life.

The sander can be used for a variety of tasks. It is fit for use in auto shops as well as for smaller projects. The versatility alone provides a lot of value.

The rear exhaust helps keep the device from overheating. You won’t have to worry about heat affecting your performance or causing accidents.

But the speed adjustment lever is placed poorly, so it gets touched accidentally or gapes open sometimes. Make sure you operate carefully to avoid accidentally changing the speed, which may affect your sanding quality.

The device is loud. If buzzing sounds affect you or you plan on working for long periods using a sander, this one is not your best choice.

Verdict: Due to its versatility and great quality despite the low price, we have chosen this as our Best Budget Option. You will get a lot of value and varied use out of this at a fraction of the cost of other models.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 2.69 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 8 x 6.12 x 5 in
  • Material: Stainless Steel
  • Max Free Speed: 12,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 10.5 CFM

Key Features

Rear exhaust
Built-in regulator

This feature provides precise speed control. The free speed is 12000 RPM, and it can be adjusted to suit the task at hand.

Light air motor assembly

The motor assembly allows vertical and overhead sanding. You can use the sander in hard-to-reach spots and at different heights.



7. Presa Turbine 6" All-in-One Dual Action DA Random Orbital Polisher Kit

  • Polish your vehicle with power (600W, 1500-6800 OPM) light weight (4.5 lbs), certified by TÜV SÜD
  • Includes 6 Accessories: Soft pad, medium pad, hard pad, microfiber cloth, wash mitt, carrying bag
  • Comfortably control the polisher by adjusting the main handle and attaching the side grip
  • Soft start + counterbalance bearings create less vibration and make the polisher last longer
  • Cord is 19.6 ft. long, easy to walk around vehicle + includes Velcro for easy cord management

The Presa DA polisher works as a sander and buffer, which makes it a cost-minimizing option. This is a smart buy for anyone looking for a device which grates down body filler and also smoothens the surface after.

This unit is powerful and well-built. It performs well on heavy-duty tasks. It even restores heavily oxidized surfaces. So not only can you remove paint and smoothen filler, you can remove heavy rust as well.

It is light and simple to use, making it a convenient option. It also does not leave swirl marks.

The accessories included are not cheap and not ones you would generally throw away. The carrying bag is high-quality. The polishing pads are useful and of good quality. You do not need to buy extra polishing pads with the kit; this saves you time and money.

We appreciate the inclusion of free polishing pads, but unfortunately, they don’t last long. You cannot finish an entire project, for example, polishing a whole car using the pads. You will need to buy extra ones for larger surfaces.

Verdict: According to our analysis, this is the best Dual Action sander for beginners. The accessories provided and ease of operation make it a perfect fit for those just starting. Beginners will have everything they need in the kit and a nice, sturdy device to start working with. The 1-year warranty reduces some stress; for a beginner, knowing they can get any issues sorted or parts fixed is a huge relief!

Technical Features

  • Weight: 4.5 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 18 x 8 x 8 in
  • Material: Steelhead
  • Warranty: 1 year

Key Features

6 accessories included

The product comes with useful accessories like polishing pads, microfiber cloth, and a carrying bag. If you are a beginner or need clean-up tools, this set is perfect for you.

19.6 feet long cord provided

This long cord allows the user to work around a vehicle easily. You can skip getting an extension pipe and use the supplied cord.

Velcro strap

The product also comes with a Velcro strap. The strap can be used to bundle the cord and store it easily, or shorten the length during use if required.

Special Features

Attachable side grip

The unit comes with a side grip that can be attached to either side of the polisher. This allows for two-handed operation and better control.

Top handle

This model from Presa comes with a top handle, which is not commonly seen in Dual Action sanders. This is a useful feature, and you can skip using a side handle or grip and use the top handle for quick and easy work.



8. Sunex SX203N 6-Inch Quiet Dual Action Sander

This is a good quality, well-made air sander that should last for a long time. While the quality is not as great as higher ranked products like the models from Aircat and Valianto, it is still reliable.

The composite plastic and aluminum body ensures longevity and durability while still keeping the sander lightweight. Although plastic bodies are not recommended, a composition of both plastic and metal makes for a quality product.

This sander is one of the two most efficient ones on our list in terms of air consumption (the first being the Aircat 6310). It only uses 4 CFM of air, which is impressive. The other model that uses as less air as this one is the Valianto one, also consuming 4 CFM of air. 

The operation is smooth. This is a great tool to use while not expending too much energy. An excellent tool for a quick work session!

This is one of the quieter devices we have come across. Unlike the TCP Global sander or the Presa Turbine sander, this stays quiet during the entire period of use due to the insulated motor housing.

This tool withstands rough conditions and still gives great service. Even after heavy usage on more demanding sanding work, it continues to perform well.

The sander falls on the heavier side when it comes to weight. At 4.4 pounds, it is heavier than ones from Valianto (2.86 pounds) and Hutchins (3.6 pounds).

This model cannot provide high power, so if you are looking to work on large projects this is not the best fit for you. While it can be used for high-power tasks, it delivers weak sanding during operation.

Verdict: The Sunex SX203N is a good sander to get if you need a quiet tool to work in rough environments. It is good for a quick, smooth finishing session.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 4.4 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 9.88 × 7 × 3 in
  • Material: Plastic and aluminum
  • Max Free Speed: 10,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 4 CFM
  • Warranty: 1 year

Key Features

Plastic and aluminum body



9. TCP Global Professional Heavy Duty 6" Dual-Action Random Orbital Air Palm Sander

  • Professional High-Performance Dual-Action Random Orbit Pneumatic Air Palm Sander That Includes Two Different Styles of 6" Backing Plate Pads, One For Psa (Pre-Stuck Adhesive) Sanding Discs and One For Hook and Loop Sanding Discs.
  • A lightweight less than 2-pound sander with a comfortable easy to secure rubber hand grip so that the sander can operate longer and with less fatigue. The well-balanced sander operates smoothly and provides consistent, even sanding for a swirl-free finish. The sander has a thumb-controlled lever for air regulation to adjust the sanding pads speed while the sander is in use.
  • An Ergonomically Designed and Precision-Engineered Sander That Has Heavy-Duty Ball Bearing Construction For Vibration-Free Performance. It'S Made with Heat-Treated Steel Components To Resist Wear and Provide A Long Service Life.
  • A Great Sander For Surface Preparation On Metal, Wood, Fiberglass, Composites, and Most Types of Substrates. It'S Ideal For Automotive Body Shops For Sanding Prep Before Car Refinishing, Woodworkers Fine Sanding Before Staining and Finishing Furniture, and For The Industrial Industry For Sanding Prep Before Painting.
  • Includes A Coupler Plug, Lubricating Oil, Wrench, and An Instruction Manual. Air Inlet: 1/4"; Air Consumption: 4.5 Cfm; Operating Air Pressure: 90 Psi; Free Speed: 12,000 Rpm; Suggested Air Compressor: 2 Horsepower; Net Weight: 1.89 Lbs.

This Dual Action sander is affordable yet efficient. The build and make are excellent, which is great given the low price.

Thumb-controlled lever  allows easy speed adjustment. There is no need to use both hands to operate the tool; you can change the speed using your thumb and keep the other hand free. The device has a high speed of 12000 RPM, so it is suitable for tasks that require higher RPM devices.

It works well on wood and metal and can remove paint, making it a great value palm sander. It provides an even, swirl-free finish on any surface.

The sander uses less air (4.5 CFM), so you won’t have to pause your work to let your air compressor catch up. For comparison, the model from Chicago Pneumatic uses 5 CFM of air and is still considered efficient. So, TCP’s one is even more efficient in terms of air consumption

This model has a long service life. Even after using it several times, it works like new. The components are made of heat-treated steel, which eliminates wear and tear. Its durability ensures you don’t have to replace it often, which ultimately saves you money.

The device is easy to hold and simple to use. It weighs 1.89 lbs and fits the palm well, making it comfortable to use for long periods of time. You need not worry about a sore arm after a sanding session! 

This tool is rather noisy; however, you can expect this from most sanding tools. It does not come with a built-in sound muffler, which is a disadvantage.

The adjustment knob gets in the way of operation, so you may accidentally change the speed. Be careful and maintain a steady hand while operating the tool.

Verdict: We appreciate the additional tools it comes with and the number of functions it serves. While the noise is an issue, the sander makes up for it by being comfortable to use, being sturdy, and reducing fatigue.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 2.7 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 7.1 x 6 x 4.8 in
  • Max Free Speed: 12,000 RPM
  • Air Consumption: 4.5 CFM

Key Features

Dual disk accommodation

This sander can use hook-and-loop disks as well as adhesive disks, so you can perform wet and dry sanding with the same device. You don’t need to buy an additional device for either type of sanding.

They reduce wear and make the sander more sturdy and durable.

Accessories included

The unit comes with lubricating oil, a coupler plug, a wrench, and an instruction manual. If you are a beginner, this kit will come in handy. You can start using it immediately, provided you have sanding pads ready.

Special Features

PSA and Hook-and-Loop Backing Plates Provided

This model comes with both adhesive and hook-and-loop plates. Because of this, you don’t need to buy either.



10. ZFE Random Orbital Sander 5" & 6" Pneumatic Palm Sander

The ZFE Pneumatic palm sander is an excellent option if you’re looking for the basics. If you want to work on heavy-duty projects or do shop work, this will assist you with ease.

The device is good for heavy-duty sanding. It is easy to remove a lot of material without much pressure or effort. You can work on the bottom of a boat with it with no issues. It is not as powerful as the Chicago Pneumatic CP870 or the Presa Turbine 6” sanders, though.

The unit is well-built and balanced. It lasts for a long time and operates smoothly throughout its service life. It also reduces arm fatigue.

We were surprised to see how lightweight it was. Weighing 1.52 pounds, it is one of the lighter options on our list despite the metal build and heavy-duty work accommodations.

Like most heavy-duty sanders, this uses a lot of air. Make sure you use a large air compressor as opposed to a pancake compressor while operating it.

Although the device can use both types of sanding pads, only hook-and-loop pads were provided. This was a little disappointing. However, you can use any regular adhesive sandpaper with it, which is a relief.

Verdict: The ZFE Pneumatic model is a decent sander, in our opinion. It is not our favorite, as it does not provide exceptional qualities in any department. It performs well enough but isn’t the best of the best, according to our analysis. We believe those working in shops will enjoy this the most, and would not recommend it to beginners as it is meant for heavy-duty tasks.

Technical Features

  • Weight: 1.52 lbs
  • Product Dimensions: 12.3 x 8 x 3.9 in
  • Material: Metal
  • Max Free Speed: 10,000 RPM

Key Features

Comes with multiple accessories

This kit comes with sandpapers, sponge pads, microfiber cloths, and other accessories. We were impressed by the accessories included since it makes for a complete kit for beginners and veterans alike.